The British military were pulling out. There were various sailing clubs, civilian and military, and Changi beach was then a favourite weekend seaside spot. The seashore at what is now East Coast Park had not yet been reclaimed. I used to go to Changi Village. Those days, it was really a village. A fisherman there called Muda had a sampan. It was a one-man. Those days, when the wind was good and the fishermen were far out, they would sail rather than row back. Each sampan had a collapsible mast. I learnt sailing from Muda.
The paddle is also the rudder and the tiller. You hook your leg to hold the paddle, one hand on the jib sheet. Relishing his sentimental ties with Changi, Robert checked out the village in Driving up and down the tree-lined side roads at Changi, Robert chanced upon Old Pier Road, a smallish hut next to a jetty. Robert decided that the place would be ideal for a school sailing club. He reported his find to the ministry. We drove the ang moh out. They were not happy. Older readers of this book, can you spot yourselves?
What year? Sorry, no clues! When we were trainee teachers out camping on Ubin, we could not even get one haversack. We had to build the obstacle course ourselves. Lau Teng Chuan had to go to Tanjong Rhu to ask the Ah Pek respectful Chinese dialect reference to an older man to build sampans for us to use as canoes. Just say. So I wrote down everything, lah. His career was all sports related. In his student days, he was already a competitive swimmer.
He still swims a mile a day and goes for outdoorsy holidays. One of his last assignments related to developing sailing as a sport was to scour Singapore again — this time, for a site for the National Sailing Centre. A view of Junior Sailing Club. Henry Chia, who was an active sailor and who is also retired from the civil service, cuts a very different figure — taller, slimmer, more serious in demeanour and obviously someone used to exercising authority. Robert has a buddy-buddy approach to people and situations.
In the early s, Henry, then deputy secretary in the ministry, was Director of Education Administration. Robert was its secretary. The other members included Lawrence Hoh and Lock Hong Kit, a PE teacher who was seconded to the club as an instructor and its first manager. The two clubs provided the boats, mainly Larks. Races were held there, too. Sailing clubs were set up in some schools and their members came for weekly sessions at JSC.
This, briefly, was how sailing in schools started and the sport just grew from there. Henry encountered trying weather before he initiated the search for a base for school sailing. Two years after independence, National Service for Singapore men was introduced. Clearly, citizens needed to be healthy, fit and disciplined. The government was espousing the concept of a Rugged Society as the national credo. The word went out to the ministry and related agencies to get every. Sea sports was a natural extension.
Despite not being a sailor then, Henry felt that sailing should be promoted in schools, not just encouraged. Go ahead and explore ways and means of making sailing a school sport to be included in the PE curriculum, he was told. That status would ensure official support and increase attraction for students and their parents. I looked around.
Sailing was not easily accessible to Singaporeans then. That club was for Singapore Armed Forces personnel. I explained to them our objective and asked for support in encouraging local participation and, more importantly, to allow free access to schoolchildren. I had a tough battle with RSYC. Ask knowledgeable locals of that period and they would tell you that the club at Sungei Pandan still exuded colonial airs.
Ask the expat members, including recent arrivals, and most would say the club was making good progress in adjusting to the mood of the independent republic. The responses Henry was getting to his approaches to RSYC left him in no doubt that those adjustments to post-independence realities were not progressing fast enough. As a senior government official, he was not accustomed to such reluctance from the private sector. Impatient, he decided to join RSYC so that he could project a stronger voice from within.
He ran into a lot of obstacles. That had to be done before my application could be. I pointed out to them that this was a barrier to membership of the club. I could not accept it. After a while, they told me I need not get five signatures, that only three would do. I still objected to that. They did not reply to me on that point. I could not make an appointment to meet him. I would have to hang around the bar, look out for that guy and get his signature. I strongly disagreed with that procedure. But I decided that, socially, it was not a good environment. In 21st century Singapore, they would have the way of local people.
It would not have been a healthy been called chefs! So, after four months, I gave up my membership. They tried to persuade me not to resign. I did. They appointed an Asian representative to the committee for the first time. This was the year it relocated to Sungei Pandan from its original home in Trafalgar Street, which fronted the waters of Keppel Harbour. So there was less sailing and more powerboating from the Pandan River location. Land reclamation and extension of the port resulted in Trafalgar Street losing both its waterfront and public access.
Jack Snowden, in the single-handed Finn, is 14th out of In the mids, a Malaysian recreational sailor, Teo Eng Tat, became an RSYC committee member, moving up to the posts of rear commodore and then vice commodore. The shapes of the cars and of the dinghy. And, of course, the uniformed officer in short pants. Henry simultaneously approached CSC, which was also dominated by Europeans. They were more open at CSC to our request for free access for our youth to use the club for training only. We did not ask for anything else.
Of course, with my position at the Ministry of Education, I was able to put some pressure on them. How could they reasonably not support a programme for training local youths in sailing? But no pressure was put on them from any other source. I was the only one talking to them. I think they took that into account. He takes pains to emphasise the key role of Lt-Col Charles Willans, who had already retired from the British army. It was hosted at RSYC. Willans was active in the club before and after his retirement from the army. We could see that his heart was set on developing excellence in sailing by young Singaporeans.
I had his full support for what we were setting up. He was the man who nurtured and tuned up competitive sailing by Singaporean sailors. He was the man who trained our sailors and got us regional and Asian-level sailing medals. Regrettably, now the late Tan Eng Huat. We also sailed in the. Round-the-Island race. That was a tough race, almost 18 hours for those of us sailing in dinghies. Talk about robustness and courage. We needed all of that in the race. We also knew we had to respect and handle the weather, our boat, our crewmates, our rivals. No matter how intense the competition, we would do whatever we could to help fellow sailors in distress, whatever the cost to our own race.
We sailors had our values! Retired and still active, Limat relished taking long rides on a gleaming mountain bike and spending time by the sea with a fishing rod. He also provided safety coverage during training sessions. The safety boats were a Boston Whaler with a 60hp engine, and two Mini Whalers, one with a 40hp, the other a 30hp engine. Then I just carried on until my retirement in Well, in school, I would see the same faces every day. At JSC, there were many different faces. My English improved. But it never became necessary. His wife Saedah binti Hamidon, who worked part-time in Tanjong Katong Secondary, let on that he was so hesitant to agree to the interview that she had to call a family conference with their two sons Saherly and Sahernizam.
The family succeeded in nudging Limat to contribute his memories. The slouch of the man and the smooth sea surface say it all: Time to relax, lah! She brings out the studio portrait of the pair that was used in press advertisements. Limat glances at the portrait and smiles. That was in My first round-island was in with fellow teacher Chua Poh Neo.
In the race, I was with David Lee in a Lark. We came in second, after 16 hours! Our food, fruits and bread, and water were all gone. We got very hungry and thirsty. Another treasured moment for Limat, this time a retiree with wife Saedah at home, beside his modern bicycles, holding a model of the hull of a traditional Malay sailing boat both ends of which could serve as the bow. Limat recalls the naughtiest trainee, a lively prankster in primary school. The overweight boy was learning to sail the Optimist.
The funny thing about him was that whether there was wind or no wind, he would capsize. He had just got the boat into the water and climbed into it, and he capsized. We wanted to use the ramp to launch our boats. They also wanted to go down the ramp. A school principal who was with us talked to them.
So they let us go first. The next morning, I was at Changi Village having breakfast before starting work. Two tables away was a group of commandos, one of them the officer who was not happy. He saw me, got up and came over to my table. I thought he wanted to beat me up. I think that, the day before, in front of his men, he wanted to save face. After that, we became friends. When I tried talking to them, they just ignored me. Mindef said they would get an officer over. A captain came. The reservists must have got a scolding.
So I took pictures, lah! Sometimes, even officers did not show any respect or courtesy. It happened so often that I took a camera one day and snapped photographs. A recruit who was doing it saw me with my camera and begged me not to report him. He apologised. As I was walking away, he rushed after me and asked me to promise that I would not report him. I opened the camera to show him that it had no film. He was so happy! His father was my teacher in Telok Saga Malay School.
But it is foolish and wasteful for the smaller countries to do this. The stadium had opened just in time for Singapore to host its first major regional sports event, the seventh SEAP Games. Singapore finished second to Thailand, with 45 golds, 50 silvers and 45 bronzes. Singapore sailors contributed three golds and one silver. A JSC alumnus, now twice an Olympian, recalls that Limat delighted in thrilling students by driving his powerboat at almost full throttle towards the beach and then, almost too late, executing an about turn — safely. Everyone must have his or her fun, no?
To us, sports excellence is a national policy now. The Singapore contingent also wins a silver and five bronzes. But, much weightier than the money, his Asian Games gold is a really big deal for the national sailing community. Imagine a mirror that can present a flashback image. Set it for for Ben Tan. After , weight jackets were banned, so the ideal weight went up to kg.
It was my first Asian Games and I was the underdog. Never before has a Singaporean won an Asian Games gold in sailing, let alone in the competitive Laser class. The Koreans, especially, commanded respect when racing in the European circuit. I knew I had an uphill task. From racing in the highly competitive European circuit, I realised that the top sailors won not because they were great in any particular aspect of sailing, but because they had no weaknesses for others to exploit.
At that level of racing, everyone was right smack on the line when the starting gun went, everyone was fit, everyone had good straight-line speed, everyone could catch waves downwind, everyone could read the wind, and so on. Races were won not because one did anything brilliant, but because one made fewer mistakes than the others.
As always, when facing a daunting task, I broke my task down into smaller tasks. I identified my weaknesses and worked on each of them — the aim was to eliminate all my weaknesses before the Asian Games. Mixed conditions were expected in Hiroshima, and being one of the lighter sailors, I knew I had to be competitive upwind, in winds ranging up to 18 knots. That meant bulking up to 74 kg. Weight jackets were allowed then, and a bodyweight of 74 kg combined with a 4-kg weight jacket would be potent in a wide range of wind strengths.
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He was the top American Laser sailor then. It becomes a republic in December with Yusof bin Ishak as President. We spent lots of time training together in New Zealand, and his constant reminders to the point of nagging helped me resist the temptation to bend my knees while hiking. Heavy resistance training, hours on the hiking bench, and cardiovascular workouts through cycling and rowing enabled my quadriceps muscles to handle the lactic acid build up while hiking.
The next weakness that I had to address was my boat handling. The fleet would be small during the Asian Games, as only one representative was allowed per country. In big fleets, covering an opponent comes at a heavy price — the rest of the fleet would be optimising the wind shifts while you covered your opponent, and you ended up losing lots of places. In contrast, close covering and tacking duels were more likely in small fleets. To prepare for the close-quarter racing, I sparred with Nick Adamson, the top American Laser sailor at that time.
Collegiate racing is big in the US, and Nick was a product of that system. He was renown for this aggressive tacks and gybes, which he used to his advantage in close-quarter racing. Nick was my main sparring partner in the months leading up to the Asian Games, in Europe as well as in Singapore. We did lots of tacking duels together, and with each week, my confidence grew. We forged a powerful alliance, for mutual benefit. Of course, while working on my weaknesses, I had to ensure that I maintained my strengths. Downwind sailing was one of my fortes.
Anyone can catch and surf down a big wave — the skill is in catching the smaller waves and this is especially relevant in Hiroshima Bay where you would not expect ocean swells. Reading the wind was another one of my strengths. Again, this would come in handy when racing in a bay, where the flattish water would allow me to see the wind shifts coming off the land.
For this ability, credit goes to Gareth Kelly, a UK national champion. I did my first European circuit in , where I trained together with the UK national team, under coach Trevor Millar. The whole team was very friendly, but it was Gareth who took me under his wing and tutored me — we trained together that season and in subsequent years as well. Tactically, the British tended to sail conservatively, and they win races not through a daring dash to the corner of the course, but through small, steady, and calculated gains. That is the kind of tactical sailing that I knew well.
After more than six months of intensive training that brought me to major regattas in Australia, Holland, Denmark, Germany, England, and France, I arrived in Hiroshima relatively confident that I had addressed my weaknesses, and I felt that my skill set was complete and balanced. I won the practice race, but practice races are often not a good gauge. Race one got underway on 4 October, in knots of wind. The bad start unsettled me, and I took some time to get in synch with the wind shifts. I fell as far back as 5th position, out of nine boats at one point, but managed to recover and finish in 3rd place.
That evening, I made a long entry in my logbook as I went through the race in my mind. I wrote my mistakes down in red ink, and used blue ink for the positives. The entry for race one was full of red ink. In October, also at Singapore Cricket Club remember the timeline entry? In the subsequent races, I kept my cool and avoided doing anything desperate. My rivals, especially Chin Hong Chul from Korea, tempted me to take gambles. Japan, China, Malaysia and I knew the Koreans well, and we would get nervous whenever Chin went off to a corner of the course, because it was likely that he would cross way ahead of us at the top mark.
When they saw how much Chin was gaining by going all the way to the lay lines, they followed suit, often to the opposite side of the course. But I kept to what I was trained to do — play the shifts and go for the small but steady gains. It was the last leg of the race, a broad reach.
Ben rounded the gybe mark ahead of the others. He sailed high to protect his lead. China was to windward. Japan the boat on his left sailed straight downwind, keeping away from the luffing match. Japan finished 3rd. I threw in a lot more tacks than the others, as I patiently played the shifts upwind. I sailed my own race. My worst race was the first, where I finished third. I took pains to ensure that I did not have any weaknesses for my opponents to exploit, while I exploited their tendency to gamble. I patiently waited for them to make mistakes. Early on in the regatta, I knew I had found the right game plan.
Somehow, no one highlighted those statistics to me before the race, and perhaps it was for the better…. Above Nick Adamson and Ben in Hiroshima Far left Gareth Kelly with Ben in Southampton There is a little used but potent phrase: spirit someone up. What Rod, Nick, Gareth and Trevor had unstintingly taught Ben spirited him up during critical points in the six races in which he had to sail well and fast.
In this context, the word encompasses the essential qualities that enable high achievement: unsinkable determination and limitless endurance. The will to win, as champions are wont to tell you, is not just a wish to win. The will to win is the much-touted Fighting Spirit, the ability to keep at it, no matter the odds, whatever the disappointments.
Henry Chia, who masterminded the formation of the Junior Sailing Club back in the s, calls it soul. And its soul. That embodiment of a special quality. Sailing has that special quality, Henry insists. How did Henry, who was not a sailor then, know? At the start of the project, I was just formulating matters on land, setting up the admin instruments for the organisation to promote the sport in the schools, putting things together. The very first time he took me out on a sailboat, we went from Changi Point to Pengerang.
It is the nearest Malaysian point to Changi and Pulau Tekong. We sailed in a wooden GP It was rigorous.
After that, I sailed with my wife in a Lark. The PDF also accepts. Then we moved on to a wooden half-cabin. She was named Belibis. Our next keelboat was a Maxi 77, Petra, built in Singapore. Then we had a Maxi 10, Impulse. He soon discovered that his host parents, Helmuth and Emily, and their sons Jeff, Mike and Bill, were all keen sailors. Just over a month after his arrival, the family took him to The Lake, which is what the locals called Vasona Reservoir.
Only boats without engines were allowed on the water. Sailing dinghies, bigger sailboats and various types of paddle craft could be moored, parked or rented a place there that everyone called The Marina. And it was there that Ser Miang was introduced to El Toro. The blunt-nosed El Toro, just 2. It is an American design, like its cousin, the Optimist, which, after adaptation by a Dane, is. The Stobbes family built their own El Toros from kits sold by manufacturers. Probably because of their do-it-yourself smarts, they put Ser Miang into one of the dinghies and cast him off without a word about boat and sail handling.
I stared at what the others were doing in their boats. Other boats were turning left, so I thought I should turn left, too. My boat started going to the right! I then discovered that I had to push the tiller to the right to make the boat turn left. It was all trial and error. Luckily for me, the wind was weak. I did not capsize the Toro. His anxiety soon gave way to enjoyment. They tied three balloons behind each boat. The boat with the most balloons left was the winner.
Surprisingly, I came in third. The first time out, all by myself in the boat, was interesting, learning to control it. The second time out was great fun. After that, I thoroughly enjoyed the sailing, just sailing. It was not necessary to race or pop balloons. A rite of passage. The Bay was big time, with strong winds, currents you needed to make allowances for, and waves or chop that you swiftly had to learn to handle. It was like the open sea, and the water was very cold. For the first time, he was sailing in a high-performance dinghy with a trapeze.
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So he could stand on the edge of the boat and hang right out, attached to the mast by a wire that kept him from falling off, his precarious perch accentuating the rush of wind and water. In a dinghy, you are close to the water, you get wet and the rush is thrilling when the wind is up. But it can be just as intoxicating when the wind is up. The mixologist of San Francisco serves up an exhilarating cocktail of wind, water, boat and sailor. Ser Miang had no opportunity to sail. In , he enrolled in the University of Singapore.
The following year, Alec Kuok was recruited to help promote sports and recreation activities among the students. The university had no facilities or funds for student sailors. A few who were keen on sailing organised the activity themselves. The university administration could offer only moral support. Ser Miang, a business administration student, became captain of the varsity sailing team and also of the rowing team, taking part in sculling events on Pandan River.
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Then he drifted away from sailing for some years. As on this Enterprise. After graduation, he went to Hong Kong to work in the financial sector, returning for national service in , just in time, it seemed to some selectors, to prepare for the SEAP Games in Pattaya, Thailand. National sailing coach Charles Willans and his assistant, Lawrence Hoh, who was also team manager, wanted Ser Miang for the games.
The Singapore Armed Forces then had a Gladiator scheme that was intended to facilitate full-time NS men who were national athletes training for and competing in international sporting events. But Ser Miang felt that there was insufficient time for him to get back into competitive form. He did not vie for selection to the national team.
But he did get back to sailing eventually, joining Changi Sailing Club and buying the 6. He kept the name given by the previous owner. Skippering Susanna on day cruises and in club races provided him with a welcome break from work. He was running TIBS, a bus company. He had been called back by family from a finance job in Hong Kong to lead-start the Trans-Island Bus Services in When the first of his three children, Xuan Hui, was in school and had begun sailing the Optimist, weekends were often family sailing days.
Memories of his sailing weekends with his American host family came flashing back. The sailors were competing against the northeast monsoon as well as against one another. I decided we had to do something to raise our. At that time, we did not have many sailors. They were mainly club members who did recreational sailing and who encouraged their children to sail. Some teachers were involved in sailing, too, very actively. Not just weekends, but family holidays also became sailing holidays. For sailors in Singapore, it was more complicated. We could not just drive from one country to another.
But Singapore was hardly known then in international sailing circles. It was tough getting in, making friends, establishing connections. Ben Tan was an Optimist Kid who grew up as a sailor at Changi Sailing Club, benefiting from the environment, underdeveloped as it was then, getting some support though it was under provided, pushing himself, smartly building on his own capabilities, wisely working the system without letting its inadequacies frustrate him, earning the unofficial accolade of Model Sailor with his winning ways and ever courteous demeanour, sharing secrets with top fellow competitors, and then winning an Asian Games gold, the first by a Singaporean sailor.
You have produced some Singapore sailors of international standing and have attained respectable placings in the Asian and Southeast Asian regattas. The late Barker had himself been a consummate sportsman though not a sailor. Foreign participation was mainly from the neighbouring Indonesian islands, but on some occasions, representatives came from Saigon, Hong Kong and Manila.
What this all means is that there is the tradition to give the sport of sailing strength and colour. We have not ensured self-sufficiency in funds. It planned to nurture junior sailors in competition. But all those plans did not bring the expected success. A state of the union kind of accounting is to be found in The Wind Is Free. During the initial research stages, the hunt for The Wind Is Free threatened to be mission impossible. And, then, one evening when he had given up, he found it at home.
Its red, white, blue and green cover was not pristine, but its pages were intact. If not for the decision to hold a fund-raising dinner, this piece of history might not have been recorded. Shaw Her, bylined in the publication as S H Siew, contributed three pieces. Were the achievements respectable? Siew Shaw Her, a high achievement sailor and the prolific chronicler who contributes three articles for The Wind Is Free.
Sailing did not feature in the Asian Games till in Pattaya, Thailand. This was the sixth staging of the once-in-four-years series. Singapore sailors contended in all the yachting events that year. AYF was formed in Its first biannual regatta was held in Bombay now Mumbai the same year. The Asian Fireball Championship was held annually in Pattaya from Our part in ocean racing was the heading in The Wind Is Free by which Shaw Her took readers over the horizon to observe Singapore sailors reaching way beyond regional and continental racing.
Each country would put up a threeboat team and race in a series with points scored in each race. They compete in four classes and win four silver medals. Their coach: Jack Snowden; team manager: Charles Willans. The series comprised five races, three of them inshore and two offshore. The two are the Channel race and the famous — many would say infamous because of its punishing conditions and the high price it has exacted on human lives and performance yachts — Fastnet race. The latter race is named after Fastnet Rock, a tiny Irish islet on which stands the eponymous lighthouse.
Fastnet is about 13km southwest of the main island. The race from Cowes to Fastnet with a rounding of the islet and back to the UK, ending at the port of Plymouth, is a gruelling nautical miles 1,km. The north Atlantic weather and sea states are challenging, putting it mildly. As usual, money was the biggest obstacle.
Singapore ended up in 6th overall, which is a very good showing. Spain pulled out at the eleventh hour. They came in 6th overall among 18 nations. Not staged in , it was last held in and was cancelled in Races that do not require a handicap formula are the one-design events. Skipper and 12 of the crew demonstrate what jubilation looks like for the 14th man on board. Someone has to shoot the photo. And her crew had not only never raced as a team before, but some had just met for the first time when they assembled in Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong, for test runs and race practice.
When the China Sea Race was first run in , it had only five entries. There were 27 entries. She was a 10m footer Contention keelboat. But regional regattas are challenging, too. Like the SEA Games, they are neighbourly pursuits subject to close-quarter scrutiny. They were not also-rans.
Singapore sent 20 sailors led by Kuttan as chef de mission. Tony wins in the Enterprise again the following year, at Labuan, his crew Claire Wee. All in all, there were 55 dinghy sailors and 70 board sailors. They won in an Enterprise. Among the facilities and equipment the British are leaving behind are sailing clubs and boats. Labuan was unforgettable for another young Singapore sailor: Siew Shaw Her. He had crewed for Tan Swee Hung in the at Labuan the year before, and they came in 1st.
The next year, at the same off-the-beaten-track island off the western coast of Sabah, Shaw Her took the helm for the first time in an international event, scored a 1st place in the class with trapeze crewman Eddie Tang of the Singapore Navy. For the third consecutive year, Singapore sailors responded to the call of the Malaysians.
There were dinghy sailors, board sailors and 46 keelboat crew. An attraction near the beach was the race area for the Optimist class. The Optimists are single-handed dinghies sailed by boys and girls 15 and younger. Spectator friendly, rare in those days, is the Optimist race area, which is close to the beach at the Tioman regatta.
No need for binoculars to watch the kids sailing. Charles Lim above wins. Shaw Her and Joe Chan win in the Khor Chek Leong and Michael Tan in an Enterprise took 3rd place in an open event that featured 15 assorted dinghies. A bigger splash on the East Coast. The year was A Frenchman called Yves Kerneis was working as a trader in Singapore.
The Big Splash theme park with its seven-storey-high, colourful slides dominated the seaward skyline at East Coast Park. That was some 11 years after windsurfing was born in the US. Kelly Chan races at Los Angeles , the first Singaporean sailor at the Olympics in 24 years. When selected, he said that his spot should go to a younger sailor with longer competition life.
It has made way for a food and beverage complex. But since those early days, boardsailing has made a much bigger splash — on the East Coast and also on the watersports scene in Singapore. This privately run centre offers a complete range of services related to the sport — training, rental, storage, sales and service of equipment. The centre has grown to be one of the biggest windsurfing set-ups known to exist in the world, with a membership of more than and a fleet of sailboards in its premises.
Singapore staked its place on the world windsurfing map by hosting international meets that attracted world-class boardsailors and sending national boardsailors to events in Europe, Asia and Australia. Kelly was 26th out of 38 in that class. Kelly died in Expose schoolchildren to sailing,. The article says that windsurfing was considered to be the fastest growing watersport in the world. We can now look forward to executing all our plans almost in full and with confidence. Thanks to Ser Miang, his assistants and all who responded.
I hope it will be plain sailing for those who come after us. Thus Junior Sailing Club is conceived. Situated at one end of the Padang, the club was near the sea but not on the shoreline. It was established in It was an active club from the start. But, characteristic of the colonial era, it was elitist and confined mainly to Caucasians of high social standing or who were military officers. A few Asian notables, like Malay royalty and Chinese towkays businessmen , were admitted. Flashback to Singapore Cricket Club is still near the sea, but it is not on the shoreline.
Founded in , sailing was never on its agenda. Yet it was the venue of crucial meetings that led to the formation of Singapore Yacht Club in and Singapore Yachting Association in The Singapore Rowing Club came to the rescue. The sailors came with a dowry of sorts. Those were 19th century dollars, of course. New Year, 87 boats big and small take part in the the first Round-theIsland Race organised by a Singaporean club.
That honour falls on SAF Yacht. The rowing club was then based on a bank of the Singapore River. Rowers took part in races in Singapore and elsewhere in the region, according to Three Burgees. Sailing races were also held. But the members who continued to sail were cruisers more than racers. By the turn of the century, rowing like sailing had hit the doldrums in Singapore. Then World War I broke out in Europe in Activity at the rowing club slowed even more during the war years though the fighting was half a world away.
By a twist of fate, it was now the turn of the yachtsmen to go to the rescue of the rowers. He and 31 other gentlemen, as described in handwritten minutes, met on July 1, , at the Singapore Cricket Club. The following month, several members of the rowing club, facing problems with an ageing clubhouse and facilities, proposed a merger with the new yacht club. The new yacht club took to the water at Tanjong Rhu. There was no clubhouse. Later it moved to a bigger space in Tanjong Pagar between Keppel Harbour and the town centre. A seaside clubhouse was built at the end of Trafalgar Street, which was later to be engulfed by an expanding harbour.
That was a big deal in England and its colonies. By December, he had abdicated, sensationally grabbing worldwide headlines as the monarch who gave up his crown and throne for the love of an American divorcee, Wallis Simpson. Coxed four is what they call these competition rowing boats. Dropping anchor again at SCC. Those initials are of the Singapore Cricket Club. Jack, who was one of the most active members of RSYC, was commodore in , , and Did he know, one wonders, that 46 years earlier, another passionate sailor had chosen the same cricket club to launch the second incarnation of the Singapore Yacht Club?
Making history can be done in more than one way. Do something that future generations and historians would label as historic. One of the messages gave the date October Three Burgees, published in , offers the date October Singapore became a fully independent nation on August 9, It celebrates its 50th anniversary in , tagging the rejoicing SG Three Burgees mentions a Johor Yacht Club. He joined the club soon after arriving here in Before he retired in and returned to England, he had moved with the club from Trafalgar Street to Sungei Pandan.
Also to prepare for the hosting of the SEAP Games, Singapore imports new Lark dinghies and holds its first international regatta as a test event. It is a. It tried several times to dispel that notion. The main difficulties arose over dialect and background history. All nationalities seem to prefer their own clubs — i. Dutch, American, Japanese, Swiss, etc, and others divided along religious differences. At his urging, the club organised motorboat races to attract local interest.
Jack had a regional perspective. Did Jack initiate the. Sheila cannot recall. I remember we used to go to the Royal Hong Kong Regatta when Jack could get away from Rediffusion of which he was the managing director for a few days. He used to get its head office in London to have their regional conference in Hong Kong at the same time as the Royal Hong Kong Regatta. I would go with him to that as we also had Singapore friends there. I did not accompany Jack to the Melbourne Olympics as I had children to look after. You find an eligible member prepared to propose you, and he will explain the rules, then with a seconder, you need to be put on the list of applications.
Until you are accepted, you have no business in this club so I must ask you to leave. Among the first to land. An extraordinary general meeting attended by 15 members and 35 non-members was held at the Raffles Hotel at 6pm on Friday, November 9, He studied part-time at Southampton University and worked in electronics and on the production of radio-controlled powerboats for the armed forces. They included RSYC members. Sport sailing was curtailed as mines were laid to protect the approaches to Singapore Harbour.
When the war reached Southeast Asia in In December that year. The Japanese landed in Singapore on February 8, RSYC sailboats and motorboats were among the ships and other craft used in attempts to escape. Some reached safety in Australia, others were lost at sea or captured by the Japanese navy in the seas east and west of Singapore. It was fitting that, when the British returned, the Kedah and other ships that had taken many to safety could sail back as liberators. What was the tipping point that steered Jack to initiate the formation of the Singapore Yachting Association?
This was just two months and a bit after Singapore became independent. Did he see his objective as a physical one, setting up the best waterside infrastructure and equipping it with the intellectual, pedagogical and technical capabilities to turn out graduates who would mount the podium at the Olympics?
Wambi, Jungle Boy (1942 Fiction House) comic books
Or was his dream for Singapore yachting more about the spirit of passionate pursuits and athletic pinnacles? That would have required an ashram-like academy that could infuse its devotees with psychological, emotional and inspirational abilities, a penchant for maverick moments and an attuning to spirit, all of which the physicals — now we call them the hardware — cannot of themselves provide.
Both before and after he founded SYA, Jack had shown himself to be a dedicated nurturer of sailing talent. When he joined RSYC, according to Three Burgees, he took pains to learn from the older members about the origins and the traditions of the club. Later on, he was said to be ever willing to encourage and help younger sailors and newer members. When a sailing team was being assembled for the SEAP Games in Burma, he accepted appointment as the team coach, probably believing that he was best qualified for that role.
Several team members have told me that the coach who really got his feet wet in training sessions was Charles Willans. Early on, Jack had made known his demands to the team. Asked by the media, he rated Thailand, Malaysia and Burma as the leading contenders. In his heart of hearts, did he think that his own sailors would return home empty-handed? They did not.
They took home all the silver medals. A sports forecaster Jack was not. Also on his watch, Singapore sailors won silver medals at the 6th Asian Games, in Pattaya, Those were somewhat unexpected successes. The spanking new National Stadium is ready for them. But none of the existing sailing clubs is deemed suitable to host the regatta. It is held off a seaside park. As Lawrence Hoh tells it, it was the end of and the beginning of He was not yet a sailor, though he was an active powerboater and fisherman. Thus Jack ended his watch as president.
It was politics at play. It was not the politicking that often bedevils sports of all kinds all over the world. But it was a political play that prematurely terminated the first SYA presidency. Another unanswered question: How did Jack really feel about having to forgo his dream, maybe already a plan, of establishing a National University for Yachting in Singapore? How did he take it?
Graciously, from accounts I have heard. He appreciated the nationalism that gripped the. De Clercq's description of this region for which he is responsible includes the neighboring sultanates of Tidore and Bacan; he also mentions claimants to the status of sultan at Jailolo and elsewhere. These sultanates were the responsibility of the Dutch Resident at Ternate, but clearly subsidiary to Ternate in his mind and in this book, and generally brought up by the author in relation to Ternate. Thus we arrive at an imperfect but more mellifluous Ternate: The Residency and Its Sultanate, as our title's translation.
Those terms, Ternate, Residency, Sultanate, translation, can also structure the questions addressed in the remainder of this introductory essay. First, why was Ternate historically important? De Clercq's nineteenth-century Dutch contemporaries, familiar with Ternate's role as the source of spices and therefore of the Age of Exploration and subsequent ages of colonization see Masselman , could have more readily responded to this question than can many of today's readers. Second, how did this sultanate, from the tiny and seemingly unpromising island of Ternate, grow to encompass such a large number of far-flung dependencies?
Third, how does this book's author, F. Local languages still relate clove and nutmeg to their wild antecedents see, e. Burkill  dates the introduction of nutmeg into Europe from the sixth century A. The antiquity of clove exportation from the northern Moluccas can clearly be traced to Roman times, for Pliny the Elder describes the clove in his writings of the first century A. The Ramayana, written about B. A recent archeological find suggests that the clove trade to the West may in fact have begun much earlier, for a single clove has been found among charred plant remains on the floor of a burned pantry room at the Mesopotamian site of Terqa, in present-day Syria, dated to B.
Buccellati and Buccellati , cited in Taylor and Aragon Thus, the antiquity of trade is better documented in this region than in any other area of Indonesia. Until the sixteenth century, clove production remained indigenous to the northern Moluccan region. Christopher Columbus, as has often been pointed out, was trying to reach the Ternate region by a roundabout route when he found America by mistake. From the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries, as de Clercq's bibliography and historical notes suggest, Ternate formed the backdrop for attempts by 1 This discussion follows Taylor and Aragon The Portuguese built their first permanent Moluccan settlement on Ternate in From their base on Ternate they maintained their preeminence in the Moluccan spice trade throughout the sixteenth century.
In general, periods of intense conflict with the Ternatese rulers and populace alternated with periods of peaceful cooperation, as Portuguese allied themselves with ambitious Ternatese individuals to extend their trade monopoly. In the early seventeenth century, Dutch traders competed heavily with Muslim traders from western Indonesia.
In the Netherlands succeeded in capturing the Portuguese forts on Ternate. By they had set up a rival port in Ambon, the central Moluccan town that was to become much later the capital of a united Moluccan province under the Dutch. In the seventeenth century, the Dutch allied themselves with the Ternatese in opposition to the Portuguese and Spanish -- and also, from the Ternatese point of view, in opposition to the sultanate of Tidore. In effect, however, the ultimate goal of Dutch alliances was control of the spice trade, and this eventually brought them into conflicts with Moluccan rulers, including their former allies in Ternate.
During the seventeenth century, the Dutch were eventually able to expel all other European and Asian merchants from the Moluccan spice trade. As part of the late seventeenth-century agreement between the defeated Ternatese sultan and the Dutch East India Company, no more cloves were grown in the northern Moluccas, and the clove trade was instead concentrated on islands around Ambon in the central Moluccas. In general, as van Fraassen writes , the main goal of Dutch efforts throughout the eighteenth century was to isolate Ternate, Tidore, and other areas of the northern Moluccas from the outside world, and to destroy clove trees throughout the northern Moluccas in favor of the more easily policed regions of the central Moluccas, which the Dutch thoroughly controlled see Hanna on the central Moluccan spice monopoly.
From the late seventeenth century onward, the Netherlands was more than just a competing commercial concern in eastern Indonesia; it was an imperial colonial force as well. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Dutch colonial government did its best to retain Moluccan leaders who would cooperate fully with Dutch trading interests. To this end, gifts of European valuables, including coins, armor, weapons, and textiles, were provided to the cooperative courts.
Van de Wall's description and catalog of regalia and other possessions in the sultan's palace on Ternate lists numerous gifts from Portuguese, Spanish, English, and Dutch monarchs, as well as gifts from other sultans and tribute from Ternate's dependencies on Halmahera and elsewhere. In another work, van de Wall catalogs Dutch antiquities, especially architectural works, in the Moluccas; his extensive chapter on Ternate examines many of the Portuguese or Spanish constructions mentioned by de Clercq as well. Though one can speculate on the structure of the northern Moluccan courts prior to European contact, that contact came early and with great force, broadly reducing the political power and economic base of the sultanates over time.
As Andaya admits, however, most of the information on early indigenous cultures can only be inferred from European sources. The Ph. Hanna, have also produced a vividly written recent account in English of the region's history, Turbulent Times Past in Ternate and Tidore Hanna and Alwi They contrast the spectacle of the early battles over these once world-famous islands with the situation today: The cheap and abundant spices of the miniscule kingdoms of Ternate and Tidore offered gold, gore, and glory enough to launch many a Portuguese, English, or Dutch armada.
Great thousand-ton Iberian galleons The spectacle was stunning; it was also shattering. Inevitably it worked political, economic, and social havoc. In the late eighteenth century the islands were catapulted into depression and obscurity. No twentieth century formula for revitalization has as yet been discovered. Hanna and Alwi x-xi From this brief summary we may understand that the Ternatese court where de Clercq served as Resident in the s seemed a remote and sleepy place, yet one rich with history that had been extensively, though not consistently, modified and documented by previous European visitors, soldiers, traders, scientists, and colonial administrators.
De Clercq himself wrestles with the large number of inconsistencies and inaccuracies in various European published accounts, suggesting corrections based on his observations. Yet in addition to the competing European accounts he cites, de Clercq had a unique opportunity to give voice to surviving indigenous Ternatese accounts of historical events.
He published in this book the first extended description of the Ternatese language, and included Ternatese texts in their indigenous script. Today, over a hundred years after its original publication, de Clercq's previously untranslated book remains the most extensive publication about the Ternatese language. When he wrote over a century ago, de Clercq already had access to many historical documents and traveler's accounts on the Ternate region; we now have many more.
For bibliographic information on the earliest published accounts, including those cited by de Clercq, readers will find invaluable Landwehr's annotated bibliography of publications relating to the Dutch East India Company, A bibliography of other specialized studies of the region, from de Clercq's time to the present, can also be found in Polman , to which Visser has provided a bibliographic update cf.
Taylor and Tuchrello Ternate, historically one of the oldest administrative centers within Indonesia, for the first time provisionally became the capital of a province Maluku Utara, or the North Moluccas within the Republic of Indonesia. Ternatese: The Language De Clercq's contemporaries recognized this book's unique contribution as a study of the Ternatese language, comprising word lists, grammatical notes, and inclusion of sample texts in Ternatese script. While today this may be admired as an example of giving voice to local histories rather than history from a colonial point of view, de Clercq's contemporaries valued his effort for other reasons.
For example, Johan van Bemmelen's royally dedicated commemorative volume praising progress in the Netherlands Indies under Queen Emma mainly commends de Clercq's Ternatese study for its role in filling out the classification of Dutch East Indies languages The Ternatese language and its close neighbors were clearly very different from other Indonesian languages. So by the s the languages of Ternate, Tidore, and some of Halmahera were already recognized as a close grouping, one of four within Brandes's eastern-most group of the Eastern Indonesian languages.
By providing clear evidence for the classification and description of Ternatese, concluded van Bemmelen, de Clercq had "importantly cleared up this fourth [group]," citing this book alongside other publications by van Baarda, van Dijken and Kern about related languages of Halmahera. Only much later did van der Veen clearly demonstrate that the closely related North Halmaheran languages including Ternatese were non-Austronesian, thus forming a compact non-Austronesian enclave within the vast region populated by speakers of the Austronesian languages.
Literature on various Halmaheran languages of this group had been produced by missionaries of the Utrechtse Zendingsvereeniging, who began mission work on the island in LPSDGI 21; Haire Christian missionary activity, including translation of Bible stories, required far more extensive linguistic work than was undertaken among the Islamic speakers of Ternatese or Tidorese.
Dictionaries, grammars, and texts from the missionized Halmaheran groups soon surpassed the Ternatese material known only from de Clercq's book and a few other published texts or short word-lists. It was later corrected and supplemented by Adriani Further have to be mentioned the history of Ternate, written in the Ternate language Crab , the Ternate wordlist, texts, and a few grammatical notes by de Clercq , the notes on Galela grammar by Kern , and an article on word taboo in Galela Kern This list should help place de Clercq's work within the region's linguistic studies during the Dutch period.
More recent language studies, including Watuseke's recent brief description of Ternatese, can be found through the general bibliographies Polman , Visser cited above. Voorhoeve has recently suggested a revised classification of the "North Halmaheran Stock," which he places, along with some languages of the Bird's Head Peninsula of Irian Jaya, within the West Papuan Phylum.
Voorhoeve's classification at this level thus uses arbitrary cognation percentages to reflect presumed genetic relationships among the languages.
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For the purposes of the introductory essay, translation, and annotation offered here, Ternatese, Tidorese, Tobelo, etc. Grimes The number of Ternatese speakers elsewhere remains unknown. From this brief summary of the Ternatese language situation, it should be clear that de Clercq's study, and the texts published here, are still a major part of the scarce source material available. It is our hope that this work's translation and wider dissemination will encourage more study of this language. Two additional points should be added, to emphasize the importance of the Ternatese language not only within this West Papuan phylum, but more broadly in the cultural history of the region.
First, since the Ternatese sultanate occupied a position of respect and cultural preeminence long after its political power declined, Ternatese or presumed Ternatese forms predominate in speech forms to which antiquity and authority are ascribed. These local speech forms include the opaque, esoteric formulae widely used among Halmaheran peoples today for magical or curative purposes.
I have elsewhere Taylor labeled this speech form "neo-Ternatese," after the "neo-Latin" used for much European word-formation; interested readers are referred to that publication for examples of a range of speech registers in which neo-Ternatese is used among the Tobelo of Halmahera, with sample texts. These range from transparent to opaque, paralleling a continuum of contexts from public to private or esoteric.
Indonesian [from Sanskrit] "mantra" , are at the opaque end of that continuum. Though they are in fact formed from fragments of many languages, these "neo-Ternatese" magical formulae are locally often considered to be an ancient form of Ternatese. Second, some of our earliest documents in the Malay or Indonesian language are from Ternate, thus from an enclave of non-Austronesian languages. Such early documents, alongside more study of the contemporary Ternatese language, could help elucidate the history of contact and borrowing in the region.
The Sultanate Researchers on the Ternatese sultanate both now and in de Clercq's time , unlike researchers of the Ternatese language, can find much more historical information and documentary evidence beyond de Clercq's book. Here, after briefly summarizing the organization of de Clercq's book about the Ternatese sultanate, we can consider his presentation in light of some other more current questions about this sultanate and its significance. De Clercq's book begins by bringing the reader with him as he journeys through Ternate, describing both the town and the island.
He intersperses many kinds of ethnographic, linguistic, historic, and economic information throughout his text; collectively, his information about the Ternatese court, the sultanate, and its dependencies, are organized within this readable "travelogue" style throughout Part I. Particularly unique to this description are accounts of his personal interactions, as Resident, with the Ternatese sultan and other officials, giving us a snapshot of life in the Ternatese court and its dependencies, in the s.
Part II is quite different, as de Clercq reproduces a "Chronicle" of the history of Ternate and of Tidore, in part as his report of local understanding as conveyed to him of the sultanate's line of succession and of the region's history, and in part as his best attempt to summarize and correct prior publications on the topic. Part III, on the Ternatese language, consists of brief grammatical notes and three Ternatese texts with Dutch translations, along with a vocabulary of terms used in those texts.
Those texts deal with the earthquake on Ternate, the installation of Sultan Ayanhar, and an speech by Sultan Mohamad Arsad. Finally, the appendices include important source information for regional history and for comparative studies by historians, art historians and textile specialists, anthropologists, linguists, and others; these include a list of rulers and of Ternatese titles still used in many other areas of the Moluccas , a description of the funeral of Sultan Rajalaut , and a description with drawings of the ceremonial flags of Ternate and Tidore.
One intriguing question about this Sultanate that de Clercq and previous scholars cited by him did not address, however, is the basic question that van Fraassen poses: When we read, in Valentijn's description of the Moluccas, about all the islands and areas belonging to the realm of Ternate at the end of the seventeenth century, a representation that has never been seriously criticized by later writers and Dutch colonial authorities, the question arises how could a small island like Ternate, with only a small number of inhabitants To what extent was the supremacy of Ternate over the many islands and regions, which in literature and in colonial terminology are called dependencies of Ternate, only pretension and to what extent was it reality?
Van Fraassen cautions against identifying the historic acquisition of dependencies by Ternate, in the period , as total military submission or complete control of the subjugated areas. Still, a successful raid for plunder did in many cases form the basis for a lasting but unenforced claim to sovereignty.
Any region that ranked as a subordinate to a claimed dependency was then also considered an indirect dependency of Ternate. He also notes that the Ternatese sultanate expanded by intervening in internal conflicts; and also sometimes by opposing, and sometimes by joining forces with, European powers in battles for conquest of surrounding islands. However, van Fraassen also credits the Ternatese court's careful cultivation of external contacts and the emphasis on the "pomp and circumstance" of the court still clearly visible in the s from de Clercq's account with playing a role in the sultanate's acquisition of dependencies.
This may have induced the inhabitants of neighbouring regions to acknowledge the superiority and authority of Ternate by a demonstration of respect and deference hormat in their relations, without having been made to do so by force of arms. The dependencies provided Ternate with tribute, taxes in the form of goods , and manpower for the sultanate's public works and, in times of warfare, for battle. By the nineteenth century, the Dutch had agreed in bilateral treaties with the Sultan to formally recognize his authority over many dependencies; thus the Dutch reluctantly had to intervene in local revolts against the abuses of Ternate or its representatives in the dependencies ibid, p.
Nevertheless, Dutch recognition of these vast and unenforceable claims of the sultanates of Ternate and Tidore did historically serve a very important function. It allowed the Dutch to deny other European powers any legal basis for entering the region or concluding separate treaties with leaders of "dependent" islands. In general, therefore, Ternate's claims to be the center of this great realm were not just fictional, nor were they necessarily based on force of arms. The extent and nature of the sultanate's claims, their integration into bilateral treaties with the Dutch, the issues of taxation and avoidance of abuses or revolts in the dependent areas -- all these were critical issues on de Clercq's mind as he leads readers on his tour of the Sultanate of Ternate in this book.
De Clercq's book also provides insights for the study of arts and material culture within Indonesia's courts, such as the court Kadaton of Ternate. The role of Indonesia's court arts within Indonesian art traditions has generally been considered to derive from the courts' role as trade emporia. As noted above, the Ternatese sultanate's ascribed cultural superiority, which was expressed in court arts and in the "pomp and circumstance" of the court, has been considered partly due to its contact with more "modern" western powers, and has been used to interpret some of the Ternatese sultanate's historic acquisition of dependencies.
Thus, Indonesia's courts frequently served as the avenue for introducing prestigious foreign artistic techniques and aesthetic motifs to artists among their upriver or hinterland "dependents. Even in antiquity, an Indonesian court's role was to mediate between the populations of its hinterland and the bearers of international trade. Court arts, as a result, were enriched by foreign aesthetic ideas and techniques but still express indigenous Indonesian themes.
The "Residency" and the "Resident" This book's author, Frederik Sigismund Alexander de Clercq , was the Resident or direct representative of colonial authority under the Governor of the Dutch East Indies attached to the court of Ternate from to Here, we briefly consider the effects that his position and perspective as Resident may have had on the book presented here, and particularly we examine de Clercq's place within the no-longer-familiar traditions of colonial scholarship.
The day-to-day activities and the authority of the Resident varied greatly throughout the archipelago, as did the kinds of local rulers and courts to which they were attached. Certainly this Resident provides his reader with a privileged view of the sultanate. When de Clercq describes the highly orchestrated Sultan's visits to the Resident and vice- versa, or his own official travels, he clearly speaks from experience.
As an administrator he peppers his descriptions of contemporary life with citations from treaties or regulations that seem to be outdated or to need clarification; sometimes his descriptions border on "to do" lists for future administrative reforms or treaty re-negotiations. Yet he seems to recognize that such reforms like everything else in the region cannot proceed too quickly or unilaterally. As a colonial scholar, he seems to want to present an impartial description of conditions in the Residency; this tendency sometimes conflicts with his role as an activist and reformist administrator.
As he guides the reader through his tour of dependencies, for example, he notes places where government subjects were granted temporary license to reside on sultan's land but seem to have taken it over; immediately he interrupts his description to suggest that when the time comes for the next treaty with the Sultan, this is one of the topics that really must be addressed.
Anderson notes that scholars working in the humanities and social sciences today find it normal to cite with admiration the works of colonial scholars of de Clercq's generation; when compared to the "shelf-life" of most contemporary studies, this fact should but does not seem remarkable. See also the anonymous obituary published in Wereldkroniek, no. I am grateful to Dr.
Furnivall esp. They were, first and foremost, civil servants--colonial bureaucrats They were not highly paid, but the cost of colonial living was low, and they had solid pensions Promotions came slowly but regularly, calibrated largely by seniority. They rarely had what we think of now as "large research grants," but many of their studies were financed out of the colonial budget, the allocating of which was mainly determined by their fellow bureaucrats.
It was not of great matter to their employers whether or not they published a great deal, provided the required reports kept steadily coming in Furthermore, they typically lived for many years, often for their scholarly lifetimes, in the countries they studied Most of the "greats" were fluent in the contemporary mainstream vernaculars These "ecological conditions," which also seem to have included the fight against boredom in the days before radio and television, led many colonial administrators to become gentlemanly nineteenth-century-style scholars of precolonial history, archaeology, epigraphy, philology, linguistics, and related fields ibid.
Their contributions to these fields of study also served practical colonial needs for dictionaries, grammars, and other forms of "intellectual access" to peoples who were governed but not trained, in any major way, to speak Dutch or the other colonial languages. Anderson also notes, as today's academics will appreciate, that colonial civil servants could count on the backup of the colonial state's archives and libraries to which they usually had easy access , "free" research assistants among the administration's armies of native clerks, and low-wage labor of many kinds.
Such perks, not acknowledged in de Clercq's book, would surely have been available to him since he reached the highest ranks of the civil service. One of the drawbacks of this kind of scholarship was what Anderson calls a "general innocence of sociological or political theory"; since theories were of little interest to the scholars' employers and since they lived far from the theory-encouraging environment of universities. By approaching this justified criticism through Anderson's discussion of the "ecology" of regional studies, one gains perspective on the advantages and disadvantages of this colonial scholarship, in comparison with the scholarship produced by some of today's academics, struggling for short-term visas and research grants, able to spend little time in the field, working through translators -- who nevertheless regularly produce theory-driven works.
Another common drawback Anderson finds in colonial scholarship is provincialism, especially a lack of comparison with the field of study politics, ethnology, etc. De Clercq's chosen subject-matters, however, have not allowed him the comfort of provincialism; this historical study of the Ternatese sultanate required him to consider the Portuguese and Spanish periods as well.
That colonial project is treated as an on-going effort. In part, this may be a requirement of his narrative format -- this mixture of traveler's account and analysis -- which requires that each place "visited" be briefly described. Just as the historical ruins allow for reflections on the region's history, so artifacts of the colonial project, whether material settlements or local rules, events, rituals, or classifications of places and people, are inherently important to his descriptions and stimulate reflection on the colonial enterprise.
He distinguishes between people who are subjects of the government directly ruled and subjects of the Sultan, with references to the statute books that give them differences in forms of taxation. Describing communities on Ternate, he notes they still owe statute labor to the places they came from. For example, leading the reader on his ethnographic tour of Ternate, he comes to the settlements of the untaxed so-called "Makassarese" inhabitants of Ternate who may or may not have any ancestry from Makassar.
Far from ignoring the colonial enterprise, de Clercq fixes on the layering of historical statues that created this exemption and this ethnic fiction, apparently to lure Javanese Moslem settlers to Ternate, and calls it "unsuccessful" for everyone including the "Makassarese" themselves, whose debilitating "life of ease" derives, in de Clercq's opinion, from their exemption from taxation.
Recently, de Clercq's early efforts to reform the colonial enterprise have gotten some credit in the environmental sector as well. Cribb's study of the early history of Indonesia's environmental protection credits de Clercq, "the former Resident of Ternate," as providing the first warning that overhunting of birds of paradise whose external trade was centered upon Ternate could lead to their extinction. In an article cited by van Houten , de Clercq predicted, "Now that the birds are almost never found along the coast and the killing has moved into the interior, it will not be long before nothing remains of these most glorious products of Creation, which are a delight to ornithologists and a wonder to the whole world.
This required adopting de Clercq's style of frankly re-assessing the traditional prerogatives of indigenous rule including the plume trade , and urging re- negotiation and reform in the interests of an improved colonial enterprise -- which in this case corresponded to improved environmental protection. In this narrative, then, de Clercq sees the personages and overall court culture of the Ternate sultanate as selectively and creatively adjusting, over time, to a large number of external influences from European powers.
He recognizes his own role as the latest in a series of representatives for whom these adjustments are creatively being made. On occasion, he even conscientiously holds up his portion of the on-going colonial enterprise for his own, and the reader's, examination. Adriani, N. Volume III. Batavia: Landsdrukkerij. Andaya, Leonard Y. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Anderson, Benedict R. Hirschman, C. Keyes, and K. Hutterer eds. Baarda, M. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde , Batavia: G.
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Burkhill, I. Volume I: A-H. Volume II: I-Z. Kuala Lumpur: Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives. Leiden: E. Leiden: P. Tijdschrift van het Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardrijkskundig Genootschap, 2e serie, [in 6 parts:] 10 2 : ; 10 3 : ; 10 4 : ; 10 5 ; 10 6 : and Cowan, H. Nieuw Guinea Studien Crab, P. Cribb, Robert Birds of paradise and environmental politics in colonial Indonesia, Boomgaard, F. Colombijn and D. Henley eds. Ellen, G. Fortgens, J. Mededeelingen van Wege het Nederlandsch Zendeling-genootschap Semarang: G.
Fraassen, Christiaan Frans van A historical introduction to the literature. Polman ed. Thesis, University of Leiden. Visser ed. London: British Library. Grimes, Barbara F. Dallas: SIL International. Studien zur interkulturellen Geschichte des Christentums, Vol. Hanna, Willard A. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues. Heyne, K. Bogor: Museum voor technische en handelsbotanie. Houten, P. Amsterdam: de Bussy. Hueting, A. Innes Miller, J. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Jessup, Helen Court Arts of Indonesia. Kern, H. Utrecht: HES Publishers. Laycock, D. Voorhoeve History of research in Papuan languages.
Sebeok ed. Current Trends in Linguistics, Vol. Paris: Mouton. Masselman, George The Cradle of Colonialism. New Haven: Yale University Press. Raffray, Achille. In: Le Tour du Monde: nouveau journal des voyages. Paris: Librairie de L. Roest, J. Collins ed. Anthropological Linguistics Social Science and Medicine Smithsonian Contributions to Anthropology, Vol. Washington, D. Taylor, Paul Michael and Lorraine V. Taylor, Paul Michael and William R. Tuchrello A bibliographic note on rare and recently, locally, or ephemerally published monographs and government reports on the Moluccas Maluku Province, Indonesia assembled by Paul Taylor; presented as a supplement to existing bibliographies.
Berkeley: University of California Press. Veen, H. Leiden: L. Visser, Leontine E. Vlekke, Bernard H. Cambridge, Mass. Voorhoeve, C. Pacific Linguistics A Oudheidkundig verslag, vierde kwartaal : Watuseke, F. Wurm, Stephen A. A web-based English translation for a much broader 21st- century audience requires some explanation. In addition, de Clercq's own extensive Errata pages have been integrated into his text and, since this web-translation allows side-by-side access to the original, we have indicated each correction, e.
So, readers comparing passages in the two languages will recognize the source of the difference. Pagination and footnotes. De Clercq's own footnotes are numbered sequentially on each page, beginning again with 1 on the subsequent page. In our translation, we number all original footnotes sequentially within a chapter, placing a reference within brackets to the page and footnote number in the original text. Among these original numbered footnotes, we intersperse asterisked Translator's notes as necessary.
Throughout the translation, we indicate the approximate location of the beginning of each page in the original text, to facilitate comparison with and to encourage correct citation of the original. An exception is made for the Ternatese word-list, however, since the words have been re-alphabetized according to the Roman rather than Arabic alphabet and thus no longer correspond to the page layout of the original, as explained below.
Similarly, our translated footnotes indicate in brackets the original text page and footnote number. Thus our footnote 9 of Chapter 2 refers to the reader to [p. When a long footnote continues on the bottom of a subsequent page of the original e. Similarly, footnotes have been renumbered sequentially for Parts B and C. Transcription and updated spelling of Malay Indonesian and local languages.
To assist contemporary Indonesian-language readers, in Indonesia and elsewhere, the spelling of Malay Indonesian 1 words and of words in other indigenous Indonesian languages has been updated using a standard set of conversions described below. The decision to restrictively update spellings has been made easier by the fact that those most likely to prefer the original spelling system have immediate access to the Dutch original in this publication format.
The rules for spelling changes in our transcription of this text follow: First, the spelling of Dutch vocabulary, all European proper names, all bibliographic citations and all scientific names has been left intact. Citations from other European languages e. French are also left intact, and translated into English within brackets [thus].
The spelling changes made to the remaining words that is, Malay and local Moluccan languages, as well as proper names reflect Malay and Indonesian spelling reforms since , and will be familiar to those who read standard Indonesian: The diphthong oe becomes u Note, however, that diacritic marks above the e [e. The consonant j becomes y except when j occurs in the consonants transcribed as dj and tj and nj, in which case they are transcribed as follows: dj becomes j tj becomes c nj becomes ny Finally, sj becomes sy and ch becomes kh.
In cases where the diacritic indicates that oe is not a diphthong, it can also be removed because oe in such cases does not become u see above. Finally, in a very few cases, de Clercq quotes at length a historic document or an earlier author with an idiosyncratic transcription of Malay or Ternatese. Using the modified transcription noted above, we can provide some guidance for pronunciation of the words and texts. However, since de Clercq provides vocabulary items, place names, and some word lists from many languages, it is not possible to state with certainty the rules of transcription that he used in every case.
Still, the vast majority of the indigenous terms he uses are either Malay or Ternatese, and in the updated spellings used in this translation the transcriptions constitute an attempt at a phonemic transcription using the twenty-one consonantal sounds of standard Indonesian: b, c pronounced as ch in church , d, f, g as in good , h, j, k, kh a voiceless uvular fricative , l, m, n, ng as in singer , ny as in canyon , p, r as in Spanish pero , s, sy as sh as in shake t, w, and y. Vowels a, e, i, o, u may roughly be pronounced as in standard Indonesian; that is, as in Spanish or Italian.
Ternatese texts and glossary. In Section VI of Part C, de Clercq provides a Ternatese-Dutch glossary or word-list pages to , giving definitions and some discussion of Ternatese terms, including those found in the historic texts published here. Those texts, in the modified Arabic script used on Ternate, were printed and bound into the book as the final pages of the volume, and numbered back-to-front as pages 1 through In this web-publication, the original Ternatese texts are visible in image-based format not character-based , along with the rest of the original book.
There is no attempt to preserve the Arabic alphabetical ordering of the original word-list those who want to look up a word in that order can do so using images from the original book. Instead, the Ternatese words have been transcribed in modified form using the spelling conventions described above, and arranged alphabetically according to the Roman alphabet. Consequently, the convention of cross-referencing in our translation the page numbers in the original text has also been abandoned for this word-list Section VI of Part C.
Also, the page numbers only refer to the original publication, and would be different page numbers in the translation. In fact, these search capabilities are clearly a strength of any digital edition. These capabilities have also given us further incentive to standardize the spelling system in the careful way that has been done here, so non-specialists can more easily search for standard terms and place-names as they are commonly transcribed today. Updated Malay or Ternatese spellings, where different from spellings shown, are shown as translations.
Otherwise, the term is translated, or its spelling updated, as follows: Koeboer Gorontalo: [Malay, Kubur Gorontalo] Gorontalo graveyard. Schijfschiet terrein: [Dutch] shooting target practice range. Begraafplaats: [Dutch] graveyard. Europeesche begraafplats: [Dutch] European graveyard. Voetpad: [Dutch] foot-path. Weg naar Kajoemerah: [Dutch] Road to Kayumerah. Brug: [Dutch] bridge. Zee: [Dutch] Sea. Topography and Travel Descriptions I. The Capital City 2 II. The Capital Region. Further Particulars 15 III. Sidangoli 26 IV. Dodinga and Kau 35 V.
Banggai and Dependencies 86 IX. From Banggai to Tobungku 94 B. Short Chronicle The names of the successive heads of government and rulers of Ternate and Tidore together with a synopsis of the most important historical events. Period I From the earliest known rulers to the beginning of the Sultanates. The Ternatese Language I. Introduction II. The Earthquake of IV. Installation of the Present Sultan of Ternate V.
When I consulted these works, however, I repeatedly encountered incorrect descriptions and incomplete information which I often found difficult to correct. There are three reasons for this. In the case of official reports, the authors too often took on faith information given to them by people in the capital who were afraid of admitting their own lack of knowledge.
Often, in fact, the informants did not have correct information about matters which did not interest them in the least. In the case of travel reports, the travelers did not usually stay long enough in any one place to explore matters properly. Often, too, they did not speak the local Malay dialect, and supplemented their deficient understanding with the products of their own imagination.
Finally, the enormous diversity of the area itself leads to inaccurate reporting. The island groups differ greatly in ways which can be understood only after a long stay in several of these places followed by a comparison of their differences. Wherever the occasion arose and I had time at my disposal, I tried to fill the existing gaps. The information collected in this way is presented here in the form of topographical and travel descriptions, a short annotated historical overview, and a study of the Ternatese language.
It goes without saying that the subject is still far from exhausted. After my travels in New Guinea in and , however, the compilation of my diary and classification of an extensive collection of ethnological objects took all of my time, and I had to restrict the task I had set myself within certain limits. This study is recommended to all students of the language, geography and ethnography of the Indies.
Trap, Two harpoons used by the Bajos. Both harpoons have the same kind of hook. The use and names of the harpoons can be found in Chapter III, p. A piece of beaten bark of the fisa tree, most probably of the Broussonetia species, upon which many different designs have been drawn. It comes from Galela, where it is worn by the Alfurus as a short jacket kotango ho hoda. A loin cloth fisa hohoda , with colored cloth and lappets. This cloth also comes from Galela and is used to cover the genitals. A bundle of leaves, some rolled up and a few stretched strips, used for plaiting.
These are leaves from an orchid tabisasu found in abundance on the Sula Islands and in East Halmahera. After soaking for three days in water, these strips can be used for plaiting. The yellow color will not fade. Plate II Fig. A loin cloth as in Figure 4, with different designs and colors.
These two items also come from Galela. II, p. Plate III Fig. A fish trap hol from Makian, described in detail in Chapter V, pp. Sarongs from Sulabesi, woven with European threads. A shield, decorated with horsehair, from Tobungku, known locally as kanta. Plate IV Fig.
Santa Cruz Hikers: Pacific Valley – Sand Dollar Beach
A musical instrument tulalo from Banggai, used especially by the Alfurus. Boxes of tabisasu leaves from Sulabesi. The larger boxes are used for storing paraphenalia for chewing betel sirih and pinang. The smaller ones are for tobacco. They have all been inlaid with pieces of mica. A hat made of tabisasu leaves, also from Sula and known in Ternate as tolu bantah; see the Word-List under tolu. A bracelet made from a Conus shell from Tobelo, known locally as bobili.
The capital city of Ternate is situated mainly along the beach on the gentle slope of the eastern mountain ridge, ending in a small plain on the seaward side. This ancient land is deserving of our interest. Many generations of people have lived and died here, each leaving its mark to a greater or lesser extent on this small land. Yet the region has been so little altered by its inhabitants that the description given by the earliest historians of the Dutch East Indies still applies almost completely to the present situation.
The small settlement of foreigners adopted the [p. The government has paid out millions for the very dubious honor of possessing a group of islands which, though sketched by naturalists in the most brilliant colors, has only indirect importance for the State. The island can be reached on either side by means of the Moluccan Sea, which surrounds it entirely. The southern passage is most often used, even by ships coming around from the north, despite its many reefs which extend far into the sea and require that the approach be made with extreme caution.
The keen-eyed traveler, looking toward the island from aboard ship, may be able to distinguish some of the places he will later come to know well, but he will have to satisfy his curiosity with a glimpse of the hardly discernible dwellings, hidden behind the thick greenery. In places, a few coconut palms or a single Pisonia with its yellow foliage will indicate a small, cultivated area. The visitor will later discover in such an area the center of a plantation so carelessly tilled and poorly maintained that it cannot assure the owner of a large yield.
Both these areas are overgrown with all kinds of trees and shrubs. No one has taken advantage of this vegetation, however, since the natives lack the required knowledge and there are no good workmen available. A few moments more and the anchor is cast, either in the harbor or alongside the farthest extending abutment. In every direction only leafy lanes can be seen, with here and there a white wall between the green leaves. To the north there are several huts built on the dry beach. Overall, the sight is neither picturesque nor impressive. Meanwhile, the same kind of activity is taking place on the shore.
Until the ship is sighted, the workers have plenty of time on their hands. They go about their daily chores calmly, and spend much of the day in blissful idleness. But suddenly, the watchman on the pier sees that the signal has been hoisted at Maitara to warn that [p. He hurries to inform the authorities and leading citizens. The news spreads like wildfire. The atmosphere becomes tense. Officials and officers eagerly await news of possible promotion or transfers.
Traders anticipate the arrival of ordered goods or news about market prices. Feeling such tension, few people seem to be able to sit at home. Soon everyone comes out to the pier to admire the approaching ship. They observe it with great interest, as if they had never seen a steamer before. The Europeans, Arabs, Chinese, and natives joke with each other.
Postal parcels are taken to the post office, coolies start unloading the goods, and many people meet friends on board or at the dock. Half an hour before, the quay was quite deserted—now it is bustling with excitement.
The activity will continue until the ship departs. The newcomer to the tropics still exhibits traces of this behavior when he stumbles upon the Padang road or thrills at the sight of the small island of Pisang, formed in the shape of a floating atoll. This optical illusion may be caused by the crater opening, identifiable by a bare patch and situated on the north side. The difference, however, is quite small. The mountain has no name of its own, and no one has heard of the Gama-Lama mountain range shown on the map in the study by Haga Wakaf, slightly higher than the peak, is the crater wall, with a diameter estimated at ca.
The names in van der Crab TKI, n. Yet many people are incapable of observing what is truly beautiful. The surroundings of Ternate provide a marvelous opportunity for romantic expression. Its immense row of volcanoes immediately bring to mind the terror of eruptions and their accompanying havoc, [p. Yet apart from this sight, the island offers nothing to stir the spirit. The monotony of the view deprives it of much of its value. Once the traveler sets foot on land, however, the situation changes completely. It is as though one were on the shore of a lake or inland sea, with the coast of Halmahera on the horizon.
Numerous fishing proas sail past, moving in one direction or another. Some glide smoothly with their sails set; others are propelled rapidly forward, paddles keeping time with the chant of the oarsmen. Here is irrefutable proof that in this place man makes the forces of nature subservient to his will, despite the mute power of the burning colossus. Bleeker, in his well-known work,5 mentions the fact that the name Ternate, depending on its use, can mean the Residency, the capital city, the Sultanate, or the island. Of these, the first two designations are of European origin and came into being at the time of the administrative division of the Dutch Indies.
Now let us take a look around the capital city, moving within the boundaries as recently determined by the government. To the south, it reaches as far as Brangka Toboko,7 a gully with a stony bed along which water flows down the mountains after heavy 4 [p. Some people claim that the word is of Spanish or Portuguese origin, deriving from branen. Teijsmann van der Crab et al. To the north, it extends as far as the Soahsia [Soa Sio], or nine kampongs, a general name for a number of quarters or hamlets grouped around the house of the highest native authority. The western boundary of the city runs along the lower slope of the mountain ridge, which turns eastwards behind the Moslem, Chinese, and European cemeteries.
Three streets or roads, running almost parallel, form the city proper. The beach road is the longest, trailing off into the Chinese camp on the north side. The avenue along the shore offers a pleasant view, with its closelyranged galala trees, interrupted here and there by a Canarium or a gracefully flowering Barringtonia tree. On top of the gate is a covered scaffolding which formerly served as a guard house, though it is not often used these days.
This pier seems to have been built as a landing dock for vessels coming from Tidore, but only rarely is it well enough maintained for use. There is a caretaker, or partadah, on the grounds, but he is generally neglectful in his duties and brings order to the house and compound only when some high dignitary is expected from Tidore. The ngosa also live here, statute laborers who deliver messages and run errands for the Sultan. They have a few proas at their disposal for this purpose. The whole compound is known as Falah-Jawa, a name derived from the former building style of having a guard house above the entrance gate.
A few steps further on and we reach the office of the Residency. Directly opposite it is the third pier, known as the jetty because of its landing dock, where sloops can come to shore from the anchored ships. It has a dome for lighting the harbor, and the inhabitants often go there in the evening to get a breath of fresh air and to enjoy the many streaks of light in the water [p. All these buildings are very neatly constructed and generally functional in design, though on a small scale, taking into account the local requirements.
Seen from the water, it is true, they do after heavy rains, sweeping everything before them and sometimes even inundating the capital. Teijsmann is in error in this, however; the inundation is caused by overflowing gutters in the city. The galala is the Erythrina Picta. The house has since passed into his ownership. This roof covering, however, certainly makes for a much cooler building than would be possible with roof tiles.
Just adjacent to the residency office is the office of the harbor master, who also has the position of warehouse manager. The outside appearance of this house lacks pomp or splendor due to its low roof made of katu palm-leaf thatch. It is, nevertheless, a very appropriate, spacious, and extremely habitable building with a stunning view of the sea and a large back garden, altogether containing every convenience of an Indies house.
Tradition has it that the then-Resident Helbach inaugurated the new residency on January 23, with a big pasang-lilin party. There is also a smaller 11[p. This statement is as empty of meaning as the equally unfavorable opinion of van der Crab in De Moluksche Eilanden , p. In the eruption, ash fell as far as Ambon. Bleeker probably made a mistake and meant the eruption of the mountain of Gamkonora on Halmahera see Valentijn, Ib Before the earthquake, an eruption occurred on February 2 with earth tremors.
During the night between February 13 and 14, the inhabitants heard a subterranean noise and felt several jolts, the most severe occurring at half- hour intervals between and a.